The formation that emerges here is similar to that employed by Arrian against the Alans. From his conscientious approach to the obligations of a gov- ernor and strategic thinking, as manifest in the Periplus, we can assume that he reacted quickly and had enough time to organise his army. We should therefore recognise the infantry formations described in the Acies, incorporating elements of the phalanx, testudo and the combat methods of Germanic peoples, and subdivided into kontophoroi and lonchophoroi, as a result of reforms carried out by Trajan and Hadrian, rather than the tactical innovation of Arrian alone. It should be underlined that the tombstones also confirm that archers and artillerymen served in the II Parthica Balty We should be aware that some of the questions posed above are to a large ex- tent a discussion of terminology; at its heart lies a belief in strict, canonical use of military terms in ancient times. Tentea, Ex Oriente ad Danubium: If we agree that the composition of the expeditionary force was the choice of the commander and not the necessity of the moment, we need to think about what dictated his criteria B.

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We should be aware that in this period the differences in weaponry and train- ing between the legions and auxilia were small enough that the two formations could have been applied interchangeably Goldsworthy In the time of Trajan the realities were quite different, as Fronto confirms in his correspondence with Lu- cius Verus Princ.

In a manner typical of ancient thought, knowledge of these peoples was blended with myths arising from misunderstandings or partial ignorance.

Atti del convegno internazionale. All the aforementioned circumstances should be considered from the perspective of ars tactica, as materi- als and techniques to which Arrian, adept in the art of war, resorted in order to repel lie threat to his province.

From his conscientious approach to the obligations of a gov- ernor and strategic thinking, as manifest in the Periplus, we can assume that he reacted quickly and had enough time to organise his army. The key to this battle plan, however, was the offensive use of missile forces, gathered behind the screen of close-order infantry Aciesdelivering a heavy barrage Wheeler That Arrian might have regarded the experience of his subordinates as a valuable asset can be assumed from the emphasis he places on the choice of the men in charge of the units of his army, some of whom he mentions by name, such as excellemce Demetrius of Balkan origin?


Latin word list

This had been the case in the battle between Roman forces in Moesia and the Roxolani Tac. They were the Ala I Flavia Augusta Britannica and Ala I Ulpia contari- orum the very first Roman unit organised and trained in the tradition of steppe cavalryboth experienced in the role of a special task force against a mobile en- emy, for example in the Moorish War of Antoninus Pius Speidel On the other hand, this strategy also had negative effects, such as the stagnation or reduction in excellencw value of units in the event of their relocation to another region.

In the s AD, when he excellenfe governor of Cappadocia, the Romans were in contact with nomadic peoples coming from the steppes of Eurasia in several regions of strategic importance to the Empire.

Also important to an understanding of the Acies is its manner of presenting events, which I should like to discuss briefly, as far as the limitations of space allow.

Latin dictionary

The main part of the infantry aces made up of legions, and amongst the auxiliary units the cavalry predominated, rather than infantry. Our knowledge of Roman military terms is, however, extremely limited.

Agricola used more mobile auxilia in the first line as they fared better in combat with tribal foot rxcellence than did heavily-armed legionaries. The Excelelnce Army in the East Oxford There he could find, apart from patterns and idioms suitable for writing a military text, several items of geographical and cul- tural information, despite the fact that most of them had been obsolete for several centuries Bosworth escellence In his emulation of Xenophon, Arrian consciously moved away from the tendency to enumerate and describe the virtues of a good commander, prefer- ring to demonstrate them through his own actions Acies 10, Cavalry exer- aciies, described by Arrian in his Ars tacticaincorporating elements of the tactics of foreign peoples, including Armenians and Parthians, allowed Roman units to retain their battle potential against different opponents Kiechle It is in accordance with a tradition stretching back at least to the age of Herodotus that the military conduct of a given people was considered to be one of its consti- tutive characteristics.

To a large extent this was a result of the personality of the author. In Acies contra Alanos he declines to give his name, just as he did in the introduction to his Anabasis.


Only the horsemen are missing, but in the Acies they serve a rather secondary role as a pursuit force Davies He did this in a similar way to Oine Caesar, although in a different literary form and without any aspect of propaganda.

The question of vocabulary in Arrian is all the more complicated in that the text of the Acies is preserved in a single poor copy and controversy often relates to emendations and not the original text Pavkovic His shortfalls were, however, made good by the comparatively simple organisational system of the professional army, the expe- rience of junior officers and a set of basic rules, presented in narrative sources and treatises.

The text of the Greek historian was composed with the contemporary reader in mind Stadter In the middle of this formation are infantrymen fighting in a phalanx, as termed by the Greek writer, and using spears like their Dacian opponents.

In this lije, his duties were dominated by politics, both in realising strategic goals and in interpersonal relations, which to a large extent mirrored the mechanisms of governing the Roman state.

It is known, however, that a number of aux- iliary units stationed in the province did not take part in the expedition and that from other contingents only the mounted component participated Bosworth The first scene illustrates a battle between a Roman formation and Dacians, in which part of the Dacian forces is shown running away into the fort. They were not limited by institutions created by Augustus, who tied the hands of Roman generals wishing to carry out modifications in the structure of the army B.

The wings of the formation are protected by numeri and auxilia, lightly-armed Germanic foot soldiers, and also slingers and archers Richmond The intensive training programme initiated by Hadrian was excellencs all in- tended to avert aciies relaxation in discipline, bringing in a rigorous drill regime as a fulfilment of the ideal disciplina Augusti Excellence The range of requirements defining a good general, as shown by B.

Arrian could also have taken useful information from geographers and histo- rians such as Strabo and Tacitus, though we know that he was highly critical in his use of earlier sources.